Factors that affect the risk of suicide include mental disorders, drug misuse, psychological states, cultural, family and social situations, genetics, experiences of trauma or loss, and nihilism. Mental disorders and substance misuse frequently co-exist. Other risk factors include having previously attempted suicide,the ready availability of a means to take one’s life, a family history of suicide, or the presence of traumatic brain injury. For example, suicide rates have been found to be greater in households with firearms than those without them.
Socio-economic problems such as unemployment, poverty, homelessness, and discrimination may trigger suicidal thoughts.Suicide might be rarer in societies with high social cohesion and moral objections against suicide.] About 15–40% of people leave a suicide note.War veterans have a higher risk of suicide due in part to higher rates of mental illness, such as post traumatic stress disorder, and physical health problems related to war.Genetics appears to account for between 38% and 55% of suicidal behaviors.Suicides may also occur as a local cluster of cases.
Most research does not distinguish between risk factors that lead to thinking about suicide and risk factors that lead to suicide attempts.Risks for suicide attempt rather than just thoughts of suicide include a high pain tolerance and a reduced fear of death.[